What type of RTA is best for you?

Each type of Best RTA can provide a completely unique experience. Here are the main features to look at when choosing the perfect one for you.

Bottom airflow vs top airflow

Most RTAs will implement a bottom airflow system. Due to potential leaking, companies have also been designing top-airflow systems that channel the air to the side or bottom of the coils through different mechanisms. While these designs are more leak resistant, they sometimes end up sacrificing flavor, although newer top-airflow atomizers have been performing much better in the flavor department.


The draw of the atomizer is also an important categorization for RTAs. Atomizers that come with a small number of narrow airflow holes will produce a mouth-to-lung draw, while larger airflow slots or multiple holes will allow more vapor production and are geared towards direct-lung inhales.

Tips and tricks for RTAs

Here are a few helpful tips to be aware of when using an RTA:

If you are unsure of your building skills and would like to see how you fare before you purchase a new atomizer, search for clearomizers that come with an RBA section. This way you will be able to use replaceable coils while practicing your building and wicking game. If you already own a tank that takes replaceable coils, check to see if there is an RBA deck available for it. In some cases, the RBA section is not included in the retail version, but can be purchased separately.

When building on an RTA (or an RBA) make sure the coils span across the air slots, especially on a bottom airflow atomizer. If the coil length is too short, it allows the wicks to drip e-liquid into the air holes, which can lead to gurgling and even flooding.

Another trick to prevent flooding is to be sure the wicks do not allow e-liquid to flow past them onto the deck. The wick tails must adequately block the juice feeding slots or holes. However, if the RTA begins to dry hit, then the user has too much wick blocking or hindering juice flow. Finding the perfect balance is key to achieving top performance.

Most modern RTAs allow the user to access the build deck at any time for re-wicking and are highly recommended for beginners and reluctant builders. Finally, be sure not to overfill the RTA. Leaving an air bubble allows juice to adequately flow to the wicks and exchange air for vaporized liquid.

Why Do Merchants Like It


The cash is usually available more quickly than it is with traditional loans. These programs appeal especially to retail and restaurant merchants not only because these types of businesses can rarely get traditional funding, but also because of the immediate liquidity.

Most cash advance providers advertise that the cash can be available in about 10 days. Unlike a loan with a fixed rate of interest, amount due and set due date each month, with merchant cash advances the money is paid back as credit card receivables come in. A merchant cash advance (MCA) isn’t technically a loan, but rather acash advance based upon the credit card sales of abusiness.

Merchant Cash Advance programs are cash flow friendly, especially during seasonally slow periods. Traditional loans and leases require a set payment every month, whether the business has made a sale or not. Because payments are calculated as a percentage of sales, if sales are growing, the amortization could be quicker, but if the proprietor experiences some interruption or downturn in business, the payments will be lower.

In most cases, business owners put up no personal collateral and make no personal guarantee.

How Providers Make Money

Finance charges can vary widely, not just from one provider to another, but from one advance to another. As an example, the range of financing on a $10,000 advance could be as low as $1500 or as high as $4,000. That’s a 60% difference.

There is no fixed interest rate; the effective interest rate varies depending on the business. If the merchant’s business is doing well and sales are up, the advance provider collects the money sooner and the interest rate is rather high. Since there is no time limit on paying back the loan, the effective annual rate decreases as the payments are extended over time, although the cash provider typically forecasts a fairly short period for payback, usually less than a year.

There’s no question that the merchant’s cost for this kind of financing is going to come in more than a conventional loan, but it’s pretty much a foregone conclusion that a conventional bank will reject this merchant for their much needed loan.

The merchants interested in a program like this may have a sketchy or distressed credit history. They’ll have things like past tax issues, a list of delinquencies, collection matters, liens or judgments that would be an automatic red flag for a conventional bank. The merchant cash advance industry caters to businesses that can’t get traditional funding.

A Risk Worth Taking

There is a risk to cash advance providers and a fairly high risk (hence the higher cost to the merchant for the money), but they use sophisticated models to determine the future likely credit card purchases. They also offer the cash with relatively short payback periods to help mitigate risk.

Although approval isn’t as difficult as it is for most bank loans, few cash advance providers will approve new merchants without a history of credit card transactions. Even fewer will approve sums larger than what merchants can reasonably expect to earn from credit card transactions in a year.

The provider of the merchant cash advance takes all of the risk, the risk is high, but since it is paid out of projected future sales, it is typically a risk worth taking. Seasonal businesses that need cash to carry them through lean seasons or merchants who have an unexpected downturn in business (say because of road construction, building repairs or extended illness) might find a need for a cash advance until business picks up again.

However, merchant cash advance companies say that ailing businesses are not the only merchants interested in this kind of program. Many types of businesses are often underserved by traditional funding institutions. Take for example a restaurant, it could be a very successful business, but a traditional bank wants to see tangible assets. Perishable foods or used restaurant equipment just won’t make the cut, even if that restaurant is packed every night.

Build Your Own Home Poker Room

Getting together with your friends periodically or on a regular basis for a night of Texas Holdem poker can be an enjoyable experience. This experience can be even more enjoyable if you have a home poker room where you and your friends can easily get together to play. In fact, maybe you are the one who should take the initiative and build your own home poker room. Think of the advantages if you are the one who has the poker room in your man cave. Being at home you don’t have far to travel.

You and your friends would be assured of having a well-equipped, comfortable and well-stocked regular place to play. Having all the amenities; an actual poker table with, poker chips, good lighting, comfortable chairs, an effective timing system and an appropriate decor would make your poker nights or home poker tournament a fun and exciting experience. You can be the one to choose the players to make sure that they are compatible socially and with comparable poker skills. Being the host you can set the stakes. If you and your friends are beginning poker players you can develop your skills together. If you have higher poker aspirations then your home poker room would be the ideal place to develop and hone your poker skills and strategy in a risk-free environment.

In order to set up a home poker room you would be required to accumulate a number of items to run your home poker games. The center piece could be the poker table. Poker tables are available in a range of styles and prices. They may have fixed legs if they are to be a permanent fixture or have folding legs if they need to be stored when not in use or need to be transportable. Poker tables are available in different sizes and shapes depending on the number of players that you plan to entertain on a regular basis. And of course price is a consideration when making a poker table purchase. The least expensive option is a portable poker table top that can be placed on a household table, card or a plastic table with folding legs. Like poker tables, table tops or also available in different shapes and colors and seating capacities. Or, if you are handy you can build your own poker table. Plans are readily available on the internet.

Poker Online Indonesia chips are also a major consideration. Poker chips may be made of clay, a composite polymer or composite ceramic. Your poker chip selection is completely subjective based upon what you might want and can afford. Cheap plastic composite chips in a case can be picked up for $30.00 or less at a big box store, large chain department store or discount store.

Higher quality clay, composite and ceramic chips can be found at many online poker supply stores or at poker supply specialty shops at higher prices. These higher quality poker chips have many advantages over the big box chips or large chain poker chips but you will need to decide what works best for you.

Playing cards are available at just about every store you visit from the corner convenience store to large chain department stores. Again you get what you pay for. Playing cards that you get for 2 for a dollar might not last very long before they show major wear and tear.

All-plastic playing cards with specialty features like Jumbo or Peek indexes (print) are more expensive but they are more durable, moisture resistant and can be washed if they become soiled giving you much longer service. Selecting playing cards is not a critical decision but by purchasing better quality playing cards you can avoid constantly changing card decks that in a short time become difficult to shuffle and deal because they have lost their firmness, are sticky or have bent or missing corners.

Basics For Voiceovers

I think some about the issues may come from the feeling that voice over is a simple occupation – anybody can do it. Furthermore, with the Internet and progressively available innovation its simple for anybody to set themselves up as a voiceover ability. What’s more, this attitude appears to have achieved some voice searchers who are uninformed of the genuine expenses and speculation that is important to furnish you with your expert radio business voiceover, your e-learning portrayal, your corporate video read.

Furthermore, it’s likewise significant for you, the voiceover craftsman, to recollect how you must where you are currently and how every component should be tossed in with the general mish-mash to touch base at an evaluating technique that gives you and your work esteem. So in the event that you or a customer begins to scrutinize your rates here are a few things to think about when and why the cost is the thing that it is.

1. Right off the bat, TIME. This is a huge factor. I have a colossal issue with occupation postings that begin – “this is a speedy simple activity, will possibly take you 5 minutes in the event that you realize what you’re doing” trailed by a financial limit of £10/$20.

I don’t have the foggiest idea in case I’m the one in particular who discovers this kind of posting amazingly inconsiderate and out and out innocent. No, No !! I’ve recently gone through those 5 minutes opening my email customer and perusing your activity posting – it will take me an additional 5 minutes to answer to it, so there are 10 minutes as of now. And every one of those minutes is billable.

It isn’t only the time it takes to record the Portuguese voiceover. Shouldn’t something be said about the time it takes to speak with the customer, to talk about the content, the style or conveyance, the statement, the turnaround time, the permit utilization and so on. At that point you record, alter, convert their preferred sound to the organization, transfer it to their server, sit tight for input, do any re-records if essential, alter, convert, transfer once more. So no, a 5-minute voiceover does not take 5 minutes.

2. Shouldn’t something be said about different costs that you’ve acquired – shouldn’t something be said about your home studio? Some voiceover specialists make this expense very straightforward in their evaluating by charging a studio charge. For other people, they want to figure it their last statement. Quality chronicles include some major disadvantages. Despite the fact that gear has turned out to be progressively reasonable, it will need refreshing and supplanting as your vocation keeps on developing and succeed. This all should be figured into the speculation you’ve made and keep on making in your voiceover vocation.

3. Training, and coaching – consider the investment you have made in attending workshops, purchasing voiceover books, taking part in local college courses.

4 Demo production

5. Maybe you have a royalty free music library that you offer to your clients – how much did that cost?

6. And what about the basic running costs that every business incurs – stationary, printing cartridges, postage, envelopes, telephone calls, broadband connection. And your marketing materials – websites , postcards, e-newsletters, all have costs involved.

7. Memberships – online casting websites, union memberships, SAVOA for example

8. Travel costs to studios and auditions.

All of these and no doubt many more costs all need to be considered for your pricing strategy.

These are to remind you of the value you have placed on yourself and your voiceover career so that when your fee is questioned you are confident that the value of your voiceover recording justifies every penny of your quote.


Τα κτίρια χωρίζονται σε διαμερίσματα που χωρίζονται από πυρίμαχους τοίχους και πόρτες. Αυτά χρησιμεύουν ως παθητικά μέσα πυροπροστασίας ενός κτιρίου, καθώς βοηθούν στην καταστολή της φωτιάς περιορίζοντας τη ροή του οξυγόνου καθώς και την εξάπλωση της φωτιάς μέσα από το κτίριο. Οι πυρκαγιές επιτρέπουν στους ανθρώπους να ξεφύγουν από τα κτίρια. Όταν πραγματοποιείται αξιολόγηση κινδύνου από πυρκαγιές των κτιρίων, οι πόρτες αυτές δοκιμάζονται ως πλήρες συγκρότημα που περιλαμβάνει το πλαίσιο, τις σφραγίδες, το υλικό και το υαλοστάσιο. Οι συνήθεις εκτιμήσεις γίνονται για να εξασφαλίσουν ότι θα κάνουν τη δουλειά τους σε περίπτωση πυρκαγιάς. Έχουν δοκιμαστεί και στη συνέχεια δίνεται μια αξιολόγηση με βάση πόσο καιρό μπορούν να διατηρήσουν την ακεραιότητά τους σε μια φωτιά. Οι βαθμολογίες κυμαίνονται από 30 έως 120 λεπτά.

Υπάρχουν θύρες πυρκαγιάς διαθέσιμες για να ταιριάζουν σε ένα ευρύ φάσμα εφαρμογών και στυλ. Τα περισσότερα είναι κατασκευασμένα από ξυλεία με χάλυβα που γενικά έχουν καθοριστεί για βιομηχανική χρήση. Σήμερα, όλες οι καινούργιες πόρτες είναι προεγκατεστημένες με διογκωτικές σφραγίδες που διογκώνονται και σφραγίζουν την πόρτα σε περίπτωση πυρκαγιάς. Η διαρρύθμιση της πόρτας είναι σημαντική, καθώς έχει αντίκτυπο στο υλικό που χρησιμοποιείται. Το σωστά καθορισμένο, τοποθετημένο και συντηρημένο υλικό παίζει σημαντικό ρόλο στην αποτελεσματικότητα των πυρασφαλείας. Οι μεντεσέδες, οι σφραγίδες, οι χειρολαβές και οι μηχανισμοί κλεισίματος θυρών κάνουν τις πόρτες να λειτουργούν εύκολα κατά την καθημερινή χρήση και να σώζουν ζωές σε περίπτωση πυρκαγιάς. Δεδομένου ότι ο καπνός είναι ο σημαντικότερος εχθρός της ανθρώπινης ζωής σε μια φωτιά, όλες οι θύρες θα πρέπει επίσης να έχουν σφραγίδες καπνού που περιλαμβάνονται στη διαμόρφωσή τους.



Η θερμότητα που προέρχεται από το τζάκι σας μπορεί να γίνει αισθητή σε ένα ελάχιστο επίπεδο αφού το γυαλί είναι θερμαινόμενο. Για όσους αναζητούν εναλλακτικές λύσεις, υπάρχει και η κεραμική πόρτα τζάκι. Αν και αυτός ο τύπος πόρτας τζάκι είναι ακριβότερος από αυτόν των άλλων δύο πόρτες που αναφέρθηκαν νωρίτερα, το υλικό που κατασκευάζεται από αυτόν τον τύπο τζακιού είναι πιο ανθεκτικό στη θερμότητα, αλλά επιτρέπει επίσης περισσότερη θερμότητα να έρθει στο δωμάτιό σας.

Πολλά πλεονεκτήματα έχουν βρεθεί σε ένα τζάκι με πόρτα τζάκι. Για παράδειγμα, ένα άτομο μπορεί να επιλέξει μια πόρτα τζάκι που θα ενισχύσει την ομορφιά του δωματίου και το τζάκι. Αυτές οι θύρες επίσης ρυθμίζουν τη θερμότητα που προέρχεται από το τζάκι στο δωμάτιο, έτσι ώστε να υπάρχει ίση ποσότητα θερμότητας που βρίσκεται σε οποιαδήποτε περιοχή του δωματίου. Κατά τη διάρκεια του καλοκαιριού, οι πόρτες τζακιού λειτουργούν επίσης ως φίλτρα που κρατούν τον δροσερό αέρα στο δωμάτιό σας από το να διαφεύγει έξω. Το μεγαλύτερο πλεονέκτημα στη χρήση μιας πόρτας στο τζάκι σας είναι το ποσό καθαρισμού που πρέπει να κάνετε σε σύγκριση με τον καθαρισμό ενός δωματίου και ένα τζάκι χωρίς πόρτα τζάκι. Το ποσό εργασίας που πρέπει να κάνετε είναι μικρότερο, αφού αυτές οι πόρτες κρατούν την αιθάλη και τον καπνό ακριβώς μέσα στο τζάκι.

Συνολικά, οι πόρτες τζακιού είναι ευεργετικές για να έχουν. Προσδίδει στην ομορφιά του δωματίου και επίσης προάγει την καθαριότητα. Δεν χρειάζεται να ανησυχείτε για το κόστος στην αγορά αυτής της πόρτας δεδομένου ότι υπάρχουν τόσα πολλά διαφορετικά σχέδια και υλικά για να διαλέξετε. Θα κάνει επίσης το σπίτι σας ασφαλέστερο μέρος για να ζήσετε

Who is a sports medicine physician?

What does he or she do exactly? These are questions which are on the minds of many people who have recently heard of the term sports medicine physician. To become a sports medicine doctor one has to first be a physician and then undergo special training in sports medicine. Here the doctor concentrates on the long term health and fitness of his patients by helping them to overcome illness and injuries.

The main job of a sports physician is to help his patients to function at their peak level and prevent any untoward setbacks in their physical health which can affect their sports, school and working life. Read Cole Linville

These specialized doctors do not concentrate only on sportspeople and athletes but also people who take up training programs just to keep fit. What exactly does a sports medicine physician play in a person?s life? What qualifications are necessary for someone to become one?

A sports medicine physician doubles up not only as a general physician but also incorporates sports medicine into his treatment procedures so as to help prevent illness and help maintain perfect health of his clients.

Normally in any sports there is a team of doctors catering to the needs of the players and it is the sports medicine physician who normally heads the team of doctors. This team can be made of specialists in surgical procedures, sports trainers, therapists, coaches and others. All of them are experienced professionals who could have specialized in any one of the following fields like family practice, Emergency medicine, Pediatrics, internal medicine, rehabilitation and Physical medicine.

You will find that all sports medicine physicians would have completed an additional 1-2 years training in specialized subjects in sports medicine through fellowship programs which are accredited. After having completed their certificate in areas like Internal medicine, Family Practice, pediatrics or Emergency medicine, these professionals then become eligible to take up another special examination to qualify in the field of sports medicine.
These sports physicians then work to obtain more training in non-musculoskeletal areas like head injuries and their treatments, treating athletes with chronic illness like asthma and diabetes, in aspects of supplements, nutrition and performance based issues, and prevention of injuries.

Home Buyer’s Warranty


A similar home warranty can be purchased by buyers, as well. The typical $300-400 cost is similar to what a seller would pay for similar coverage, and a buyer’s warranty covers the same things as a seller’s warranty. The main difference is that a buyer’s warranty typically begins on the date of closing and continues for a one-year period after that. Another difference: the buyer’s warranty can be renewed annually. Visit best home warranty companies

Besides Home Warranty of America, there are a number of other companies that offer home warranties for sellers and buyers. Those companies include 2-10 Warranty, American Millennium (which offers a policy to specifically cover hidden structural or pest damage to a home), and Home Warranty Plans, but you’ll probably find others if you do an Internet search or check with your local real estate broker.

As is the case with any consumer product or service, it’s always wise to do some research before you decide whether a seller’s or buyer’s warranty is something you want to consider. Then, if you’ve decided that such a warranty is worthwhile in your particular situation, make sure to compare the various programs to see which ones are available in your area, what they specifically cover, their overall cost, the amount of their deductible, anything that might be excluded from the program, and any other variables before you commit. Remember, you can offer the warranty, but if you consider an offer less than full price, you can ask the buyers to provide their own warranty.

Providing this service adds to your home’s overall appeal to home shoppers. A home warranty gives your home buyers the peace of mind they seek.



The PU Timing Belts has a couple of points of interest over the planning chain. For a certain something, the expense and exertion engaged with assembling it are lower. It runs all the more unobtrusively and doesn’t require any grease, which likewise implies that it needn’t bother with a fixed chamber to work in.

Timing chain aides are additionally superfluous, as a basic tensioner pulley and at least one redirection pulleys are sufficient for the belt, contingent upon the motor’s size and intricacy.

In the interim, the planning belt has been grown further, which encourages a substitution interim of up to 200,000 km. This reality is especially engaging with regular drivers.

The planning chain has its appeal, obviously. It more often than not doesn’t have a substitution interim by any stretch of the imagination, empowering it to keep going for the whole vehicle lifetime. For this situation, it’s critical to replace the oil consistently: this will guarantee that the planning chain remains a solid and strong buddy.


Such a great amount for the hypothesis, despite the fact that things frequently don’t run easily by and by. On the off chance that the planning chain ends up prolonged or if rattling clamors happen, things will get costly. That will require another planning chain, new planning chain controls, another planning chain tensioner, new chain sprockets for the crankshaft and the camshaft and – as a rule – a considerable measure of work.

Thus, you currently end up looked with a predicament. Which framework would it be advisable for you to go for?


How about we return to our real theme – motors with timing belts. In the event that the belt is unintentionally uprooted by one single tooth during substitution, the valve timing will never again coordinate. As it were, the delta and outlet valves will open and close at the wrong time. This is a certain flame reason for poor motor execution. In the event that the belt is uprooted by one more tooth, that is frequently window ornaments for the motor, which will granulate to a stop before the valves bow down before the cylinders for the fantastic finale.

It’s a comparable story when you attempt to ration the wrong parts and your fortunate streak comes juddering to an end. Blast, the valves are twisted, and the cylinder is knackered, which implies that the motor itself is harmed. This can happen faster than you may might suspect! All in all, is it extremely worth putting off supplanting the planning belt? Not as I would like to think.

Top Five Reasons Why Law Firms Should Consider Selective Legal Outsourcing

Several weeks ago I received an email from a lawyer who was considering outsourcing some of the legal work of his law firm. Facing resistance and challenges from many in his law firm who wanted to maintain the status quo, he asked for my advice as to what he should tell his partners. Why should the firm outsource legal work offshore, a practice seen by some as adventuresome and risky, instead of staying the course, doing it “the way we have always done it.” I answered him with the top ten reasons why every law firm should consider selective legal outsourcing:


Outsourcing some legal work to qualified providers in India will result in significantly lower overhead to the outsourcing law firm. In assessing the comparative costs the law firm will be wise to carefully calculate the real costs of employing one lawyer or paralegal. Visit McCusker Anselmi Rosen & Carvelli

Those costs include salary and bonus, health insurance, vacation and holiday pay, sick time expense, FICA, office space and equipment for the lawyer, paralegal and secretarial staff assigned to that lawyer, pension and profit sharing, auto and parking expense, CLE seminar costs, and other employment benefits such as disability and life insurance.

The real annual cost of one lawyer earning a base annual salary of $150,000-$175,000 is more likely in the range of $250,000 to $300,000 per year. NONE of these customary expenses accrue to a law firm utilizing supplemental offshore legal providers.


Selective outsourcing will improve the efficiency of your law firm. Because Indian lawyers work while American lawyers sleep, it will be like your law firm has a full time, fully staffed night shift. Some work can be assigned by a partner at 6 p.m. in the evening and the completed task on his desk when he arrives at the office the next morning. Litigation cases will move more rapidly through the court system with less need for extensions of time.


As a child not many of the sermons I heard from my pastor stuck with me. But one, when I was fourteen years of age still rings a bell. He said: “Ninety percent of any worthwhile endeavor is pack work, plugging, day in and day out. Only ten percent of our work tasks are necessarily fun and enjoyable.

” I have always remembered that statement. In more than two decades as a trial lawyer, I enjoyed strategizing and trying cases to juries. But I did not necessarily enjoy all of the trial and deposition preparation, research and briefing, document review, and other mundane essentials of the practice of law.

A law firm that incorporates outsourcing into its practice will inevitably foster more contented lawyers who devote their time and energies to the more challenging, fun and rewarding parts of the practice of law. Only the “chore” legal work is outsourced with the “core” work staying onshore. This allows more time for client interaction and development by the firm’s lawyers.


Clients of law firms, particularly business clients, are searching far and wide for ways to cut their legal expenses. Many ask why they should pay, for example, $200 to $300 hourly for document review. Gone are the days when legal bills are simply paid without scrutiny. Likewise, the annual increases in hourly rates will not be well received by clients looking to cut costs. Wise law firms put the interests of their clients above their own. What is good for the client will ultimately be good for the law firm itself.


The Rules of Professional Conduct of requiring that: a. “A lawyer should seek to achieve the lawful objectives of a client through reasonable permissible means.” (Rule 1.2) b. “A lawyer shall explain a matter to the extent reasonably necessary to permit the client to make informed decisions about the representation.” (Rule 1.4 b) c. “A lawyer shall make reasonable efforts to expedite litigation consistent with the interests of the client.” (Rule 3.2)

A lawyer is required to explore and discuss with his client all reasonable means of accomplishing the client’s objectives. A lawyer is not permitted to charge an unreasonable or excessive fee. It would seem that a lawyer is arguably required to discuss selective outsourcing as a way of reducing the client’s ultimate fee obligation and furthering the interests of the client.


All About Hull Construction

A boat’s seaworthiness is only as good as the structure of its hull. This is why construction of the hull is one of the most important boat building tasks. The hull must be light enough to float while as the same time being strong enough to withstand the elements. Well-executed hull  Corbyn Construction will make a boat secure, watertight and stable.

Besides become one of the most critical boatbuilding tasks, hull construction is one of the largest. In Building Your Dream Boat, boat building expert Charles Wood estimates that constructing the deck and hull for a 40-ft boat requires up to 1200 hours of labor.

There are many hull designs to choose from and each uses a unique construction technique. These are some of the most common hull construction techniques:

· Sheet Plywood – The hull is formed from plywood sheets that are attached to a wooden frame. Instead of a frame, a stitch & glue process can be used in place of a frame. Stitch & glue uses epoxy, resign and copper wire to secure the plywood. It’s a popular technique for constructing dinghies and other small watercraft.

· Strip Planking – One of the most popular DIY hull construction techniques, strip planking uses narrow planks that can be easily manipulated by one person. Epoxy and nails are used to fasten the plank strips. When constructed properly, a strip planking hull will be strong, durable and resist water leaks.

· Carvel – This hull construction technique requires wooden planks to be shaped and attached to a frame to form a smooth hull which is then sealed with caulking. Although this is one of the oldest techniques for constructing a hull, the difficulties involved in fairing the external hull surface make it one of the hardest for novice boat builders.

· WEST (Wood Epoxy Saturation Technique) – This technique requires coating a wooden hull with epoxy to protect it from the elements. The hull is most often constructed using the strip planking technique. When it has been protected with epoxy, it can resist damage from water, corrosion and decay. This hull construction technique is popular among hobbyists who often use clear epoxy to highlight the natural grain of a wooden hull.